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Federal Research Center 
"Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian
Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences"

 Федеральный исследовательский центр «Красноярский научный центр Сибирского отделения Российской академии наук»

Federal Research Center 
"Krasnoyarsk Science Center of the Siberian
Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences"

The most notable news about research performed by scientists of the Krasnoyarsk Science Center SB RAS

27 December 2019 г. FRC KSC SB RAS

Самые заметные новости об исследованиях ученых Красноярского научного центра СО РАН
December is time to sum up the results. On the whole, this year was a record one for the entire period of the existence of FRC in terms of the visibility of our researchers and their scientific results - almost 3,000 references in federal and regional mass media. This information is provided by the specialized system of monitoring and analysis “Medialogy”. As in science, journalism and communications have their own ratings and indicative citation accounting systems. For each news, one can see the number of reprints in other media and a media index which indicates visibility of the news in the information field.

Our activity in promoting the image of KSC SB RAS was noticed at the federal level. The group of scientific communications was awarded the small Grand Prix “Eureka”! within the All-Russian award "Communication Laboratory" for high quality standards of communication work of small communication teams in a scientific organization. First of all, thanks should be given to scientists whose studies give us an opportunity to write about them with pride. We would like to distinguish the scientists whose scientific results became known not only to colleagues in other laboratories, but also to all residents of the country.

A scientist announced the possible time of restoration of the forests burned in Siberia

In August, forests were burning in Siberia, and scientists of the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest were in demand as experts on all matters concerning the fate of the taiga. Alexander Bryukhanov, senior researcher at the Laboratory of Forest Pyrology, took over the attention of many media outlets. His expert opinion on the time of restoration of the burned forests was the most noticeable news this year.

“For example, in the north of Siberia (Yakutia, Evenkia), as a rule, it takes at least 100 years for a pine or larch to grow into an adult tree. And somewhere in the south of Siberia, it can grow into an adult tree in 60-70 years. Accordingly, a whole century may not be enough to restore the forests of the northern taiga, where very strong fires are now observed”.

Scientists advised how to avoid bear attacks

The second most significant news was the analysis of the causes of unwanted meetings of people and bears. Alexander Shishikin, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Head of the Laboratory of technogenic forest ecosystems, along with an international team of researchers, performed a global analysis of the causes of brown bear attacks on people. Scientists compiled a map of attacks of the brown predators and provided recommendations how to reduce the consequences of human encounters with wild animals.

“The bear is considered one of the most clever and dangerous animals. Usually he does not attack without provocation from a human. We believe that we need to learn more about encounters with bears, their causes and factors in order to minimize tragic scenarios. To do this, it is necessary to educate the society, and to tell what to do in such cases. For example, while in the habitat of bears, it is important to make noise for the animal to know about the presence of humans and not to get suddenly “scared". In the case of meeting a bear, it is important not to run away, which can invoke their predator instincts. "We must continue to make noise and seem threatening, while retreating to a safe distance."

Russian scientists proposed a method for detecting multiple sclerosis

A Candidate of Biological Sciences, research associate Vasilisa Krasitskaya, together with her colleagues, suggested a quick and inexpensive method to detect multiple sclerosis based on aptamers and bioluminescent proteins. For the analysis, a patient will only have to give a blood sample.

“We believe that in the future, after the refinement of our test system, it will be possible to recognize multiple sclerosis, monitor its course and estimate the effectiveness of the therapy used. Now use is made of complex and expensive methods. As compared to this, blood diagnostics is simpler, faster and cheaper. Of course, MRT will remain the main method of diagnosizing. Our analysis will be a convenient additional tool, also suitable for a wide initial examination of patients. ”

Krasnoyarsk scientists criticized the NASA space diet

A Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher Vladimir Kovalev, along with his colleagues, tested through computer calculations the possibility of fulfilling the NASA requirements for the nutrition of astronauts in long space missions. The recommendations developed by the American space agency turned out to be extremely difficult to implement at the current level of development of space technologies.

“We determined that using 20–25 food sources ensures that the estimated nutrient intake is as close as possible to the NASA standards. A further increase in the amount of the set of products provides only an increase in food diversity, but does not allow for a complete diet. ”

Scientists developed fish processing technology for stations on the Moon and Mars.

Alexander Tikhomirov, Doctor of Biological Sciences, professor, head of the laboratory of phototrophic biosynthesis management and his team developed a technology for processing fish waste to prepare a nutrient solution for growing plants. The technology will become a part in the future closed human life support system in space.

“We showed that wheat plants grown on a nutrient solution prepared from mineralized fish waste and human waste gave a higher yield compared to the crop yield obtained using only mineralized human waste. In addition, fish waste has become a source of additional mineral elements for wheat. ”

The existence of a "climate bomb" in Russia was proved

A Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher Svetlana Evgrafova and A Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Senior Researcher Yuri Barkhatov, along with colleagues, investigated the response of the Arctic soil to warming. It turned out that with an increase in the soil temperature by two degrees, the rate of carbon dioxide emission doubles.

“In our experiment, heating of the Arctic soil by two degrees led to a twofold increase in its carbon dioxide emissions, if we consider the entire growing season." These results are important in estimating carbon loss by permafrost ecosystems for predicting the effects of global warming at high latitudes."

Scientists in the Krasnoyarsk Region discovered a new type of insect pest

A Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher Natalya Kirichenko, as part of a team of scientists, discovered in Krasnoyarsk a new type of leaf miner - a potential pest of shrub plants. This is not the first new insect species discovered in recent years by scientists of the V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest in Krasnoyarsk and surrounding area. Such discoveries suggest that Siberia is still a “white spot” - a region with insufficiently studied biodiversity.

“A new kind of leaf mining moth was discovered in Akademgorodok in Krasnoyarsk. Initially, we collected only a pair of caterpillars which were subjected to molecular genetic diagnostics. Through genetic characteristics, it became clear that we are dealing with a new species. The following summer, butterflies were collected to describe it. The new species was named Phyllonorycter ivani in honor of my father, Ivan, who always supported (and continues to support) my interest in entomology. ”

Ice will break: transparent films will defrost auto-glass

A senior researcher Stanislav Khartov and his colleagues developed unique conductive materials which allow instantly defrosting automobile window glass across the entire area, while maintaining its full transparency. New technologies will be useful in arranging premises - an innovative self-adhesive film can be applied to any glass in a house or office, turning it into a safe and energy-efficient heater. A separate area of application is fast tinting of any glass surfaces. The production of films using the new method is several times cheaper than the lithography methods currently used to create foreign analogues.

Scientists detect a decrease in radionuclides in the biota of the Yenisei river after the shutdown of MCC reactors

A Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher Tatyana Zotina and her colleagues measured the content of radionuclides in the inhabitants of the Yenisei River. The monitoring data showed a decrease in the number of technogenic radionuclides in biota after the shutdown of nuclear reactors of the Mining and Chemical Combine. Short-lived isotopes with a half-life of less than ten years are no longer recorded. Only a small content of the long-lived isotope Cesium-137 is detected in the samples, but its concentration in fish is much lower than the state standard.

“Contamination of the Yenisei with technogenic radionuclides is a reality which we cannot change, but we have the opportunity to study this unique phenomenon and obtain new information about the behavior of radionuclides in a large freshwater flowing ecosystem, their interaction with biota. Studying the radioactive contamination of the Yenisei, we obtained new data which are interesting not only for us, but also for the international scientific community. ”

Scientists proposed using superconducting foam for docking spacecraft in space

Denis Gokhfeld, Candidate of Physical and Mathematical, senior researcher, as part of an international team of scientists, proved that a large sample of superconducting foam has a stable and strong magnetic field. Unlike conventional superconductors, foam is a light and durable material with the possibility of manufacturing large samples. It can be used in space for easier and more careful docking of spacecraft and collection of space debris.

“Superconducting foam is easy to manufacture. If necessary, and with the right materials at hand, it can be done at home in an ordinary oven. In addition, such foam can be used in space, especially in satellites. For spacecraft, it is especially important that the material is lightweight and the foam developed is extremely light. It consists of 90% of pores; the conductor itself makes only 10%, so it is 10 times lighter than conventional superconducting materials. "